Management company for dozens of vineyards. Managing 600 acres in Napa County
Variable (Calistoga to Angwin to Carneros)
Hand work: Shovel
2-3 depending on season and owner weed tolerance
Some. Only using Suppress currently but it needs multiple passes per year and efficacy is limited. Early applications have been replaced with sheep.
Some. Depending on owner preference and availability
Site and owner dependent.
Yellow starthistle; Bindweed/Morning glory
Napa Green Vineyard
Certified California Sustainable Winegrowing
Fish Friendly Farming
Tractor: Gramegna $500-800/pass/acre
Tractor: Pellenc $300-600/pass/acre
Handwork: Shovel $500-1000/pass/acre
Sheep $80-850/pass/acre (entirely dependent on site)